Survey participants were considered to be working currently if, when asked about their employment status during the week before their interview, they responded "working at a job or business," "with a job or business but not at work," or "working, but not for pay, at a family-owned job or business." Information on participants' industry of employment and occupation was classified by trained coders (6).Workers within the accommodation and food services sector were identified, and two industries and 10 occupations were examined within the Cigarette smoking prevalences were calculated for the accommodation and food services sector workers and for all other workers (i.e., those not working in the accommodation and food services) by selected characteristics.During 2011-2013, approximately 142 million (60.5%) of the estimated 235 million U. adults aged ≥18 years were employed during the week before the interview; among these, an estimated 9.3 million (6.6%) worked in the accommodation and food services sector. Among the accommodation and food services sector workers, cigarette smoking was highest among those aged 25−44 years (31.4%), those with a high school diploma/GED certificate and no college education (32.1%), those with an annual family income ). Surgeon General's report on the health consequences of smoking concluded that disease and death from tobacco use are overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products, and that rapid elimination of their use will substantially reduce this burden (1).
(Author affiliations at end of text) Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1).
One of the Healthy People 2020 objectives calls for reducing the proportion of U. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12% (objective TU-1.1) (2). working adults aged ≥18 years smoked cigarettes, and of all the industry sectors, current smoking prevalence among the accommodation and food services sector workers (30%) was the highest (3).
Despite progress in reducing smoking prevalence over the past several decades, nearly one in five U. adults, including millions of workers, still smoke cigarettes (1,3). CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2011–2013 to estimate current cigarette smoking prevalence among adults working in the accommodation and food services sector, and found that these workers had higher cigarette smoking prevalence (25.9%) than all other workers (17.3%).
Among workers in accommodation and food services sector, the highest smoking prevalences were observed among males, non-Hispanic whites, those aged 25–44 years, those with a high school diploma or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate and no college education, those with an annual family income .* Cigarette smokers were defined as adults aged ≥18 years who reported having smoked ≥100 cigarettes during their lifetime and, at the time of interview, reported smoking every day or some days.
However, additional analyses examining longest held job showed similar results.
Second, the extent of underreporting or over reporting of cigarette smoking could not be determined because smoking information was self-reported and was not validated by biochemical tests; nevertheless, comparison of self-reported smoking status with results of measured serum cotinine levels suggests generally high levels of validity (9). A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-13) calls for all states to enact laws on smoke-free indoor air that prohibits smoking in public places and worksites (2).
Workers in the accommodation and food services sector have a higher prevalence of cigarette smoking than all other civilian U. Although considerable progress has been made during the past decade, with increasing numbers of states having comprehensive smoke-free laws that prohibit smoking in all indoor areas of worksites, restaurants, and bars, an estimated 2.4 million workers in the food and accommodation services sector still smoke cigarettes (10).
Cigarette smoking prevalence among workers in the food services and drinking places (26.8%) industry and in five of the 10 occupations within the accommodation and food services sector was greater than twice the Healthy People 2020 target of ≤12% for U. This report indicates that 2.4 million workers in the accommodation and food services sector currently smoke cigarettes, and among those, prevalence was highest among males, non-Hispanic whites, persons with less education, those who live below the poverty level, those who have been working for Other proven population-based interventions include increasing tobacco prices, implementing comprehensive smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places, employing anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and ensuring barrier-free access to quitting assistance (8).
Furthermore, in concert with Total Worker a strategy that integrates occupational safety and health protection with health promotion to prevent worker injury and illness, employers may adopt workplace interventions that address health risks from both the work environment and from individual behavior, with the goal of reducing smoking-related disparities. The findings in this report are subject to at least two limitations.
Employers, businesses, trade associations, and worker representatives can work in partnership with their state and local health departments to implement these evidence-based policies and programs to reduce the prevalence of smoking among U. First, the employment information collected applied only to the week preceding the interview.
Some workers might have changed jobs and thus might have been in a different occupation or industry before the time of the survey.